Spanish Civil War – January 1937

January 5

18,000-strong Nationalist forces under General Orgaz attack the roads north west of Madrid in an attempt to cut the city’s supply lines. Madrid is suffering several air raids a day.

January 6

The Nationalists capture take Boadilla, defended by the International Brigades. Incidently, one of the few survivors of the Internationals is Romilly, 17-year-old nephew of Winston Churchill.

January 11

The Nationalist offensive northwest of Madrid is halted. Both sides have received heavy casualties, and start to build trenches and dig themselves in.

January 15

Diary entry by Julius Toab, a member of the Abraham Lincoln Battalion,

We received a royal welcome. Men began to arrive that night. Stories of escaping from fascist Germany by swimming rivers, climbing mountains, hiking for hundreds of miles. From all parts of the world they came. Always coming. Anti-fascists. The International Brigades.

January 17

The Nationalists begin the battle to take Málaga. Three Nationalist columns converge on the city from Sevilla and Granada. Ten days later the Republican forces would be completely routed.

Battle of Málaga – Wikipedia

On January 17, the campaign to conquer Málaga began when the newly constituted Army of the South under Queipo de Llano advanced from the west and soldiers led by Colonel Antonio Muñoz Jiménez attacked from the northeast. Both attacks encountered little resistance and made advances of up to 15 miles in a week. The Republicans failed to realize that the Nationalists were concentrating for an attack on Málaga and thus they remained unreinforced and unprepared for the main attack on February 3.

January 19

The International Brigades under General Enrique Líster gain back the Cerro de los Angeles next to Madrid, overlooking the city. The Brigades have become an essential part of the Republican Army.

Salamanca Radio Nacional de España begins broadcasting from Nationalist Spain.

January 30

Pastoral letter from Cardenal Gomá entitled “La cuaresma de España” (The Lent of Spain) pronounces is favour of the Rebels, and blames masons, Jews and communists.

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