The Spanish holocaust · ELPAÍ in English Discussion of Paul Preston´s new book
Clemency was not a word that Captain Manuel Díaz Criado understood. During his four months in charge of security in the Andalusian capital of Seville following the capture of the city in July 1936 by the forces of General Francisco Franco, he launched a reign of terror, rounding up anybody suspected

An introduction to the crimes of Franco by Paul Preston: Harrowing at times.

The remains of General Franco lie in the gigantic mausoleum of the Valle de los Caídos (Valley of the Fallen), built with the sweat and blood of twenty thousand slave labourers.

Paul Preston on the post-war repression

Occupied Catalonia experienced an all-pervading terror in a period when merely to stay alive was a major achievement for many.   Research into daily life for the defeated in rural Catalonia in the 1940s is deeply shocking, revealing an appalling catalogue of hunger and illness, arbitrary repression and fear – fear of arrest, fear of denunciation by a neighbour or by a priest.  The entire process was underpinned by the complicity of thousands of people who for many reasons  –  fear,  politics,  greed,  jealousy  –  became  informers  and  denounced  their  neighbours.   The sheer misery of life for the defeated in Franco’s Spain accounts for the notable rise in the suicide rate, which  was  often the  consequence  of  economic  and  sexual  extortion  by the  powerful.    Considerable cruelty  was  visited  upon  women  under  the  rhetorical  Francoist  umbrella  of  ‘redemption’  –  rape, imprisonment as retribution for the behaviour of a son or husband and confiscation of goods.   Soldiers billeted on poor families often took advantage of the unprotected women of the household.   There was no  shortage of priests  ready to defend the honour of male parishioners and to denounce their female victims as ‘reds’.

The Splintering of Spain Chris Ealham, Michael Richards

In 1940, the dictator established by decree the Causa General, which is in effect an archive containing evidence for a prosecution of the Second Republic for crimes against Spain.28 Public prosecutors were sent into all the provinces that had formed part of the republican zone, with authority to collect documents, conduct inter-views and compile witness statements. Over 1,500 files were compiled to complement the military and political repression carried out in Spain before 1943–5. The archive was ostensibly to have a purely informative or exemplary character, part of Franco’s vainglorious ambition to be answerable only ‘before God and history’. Legal standards of proof were not observed and the quality of the information varies considerably from province to province.

The history of silence Moving documentary (online with English subtitles) of how the dictatorship tried to erase the memory of a generation and how the decendents are trying to find out what happened. Centred especially on Malaga
70 years after the civil war, people are still missing in mass graves. Now the third generation descendants of those who want to know where are their relatives. A story about the importance of knowing the memory of family on the facts of the war
Spanish civil war victims’ bodies finally removed from mass grave |The Guardian Spain’s government publishes first country-wide map of locations of more than 2,000 mass graves from the civil war
Spain and the lingering legacy of Franco | The Guardian The fascist dictator’s shadow still hangs over Spain – but can this generation or the next finally bring catharsis to the nation? 

18–20 May: On Ascension Day, Franco rides triumphantly
into Madrid on white horse. Victory parade in Madrid
follows, replicating the ritual of Alfonso VI’s entry into
27 May: Measures introduced against the use of Catalan
July and August: Orders for ‘purging’ of teaching profession.
8 August: Franco’s complete power is legislated in law of
state organisation.
23 September: Law of Widow and Orphans’ pensions for
families of men on the nationalist side only.
xxii Chronology
1940 1 March: Law ‘Against Freemasonry and Communism’.
18 March: Decree making 1 April (anniversary of the victory)
a national holiday.
1 April: Beginning of work on monumental pantheon of the
‘crusade’, the Valley of the Fallen.
12 July: Reestablishment of the Military Code of Justice for
crimes ‘derived from the Movimiento Nacional’ (civil war).
1953 26 September: Accord between US and Spanish governments
on technical and economic assistance.
1959 1 April: Inauguration by Franco of monumental tomb at the
Valley of the Fallen.
21 July: ‘Stabilisation Plan’ announced as a ‘Decree Law’
aimed at liberalising economy.
1964 Resolutions of Second Vatican Council.
1969 1 April: Thirty years after Franco’s victory, final ‘prescription’
of punishments for all ‘criminal acts’ before April 1939
1975 20 November: Death of General Franco. Juan Carlos is
proclaimed king.
1977 October: Political amnesty decreed by parliament.
1982 October: Electoral victory of PSOE, first socialist involvement
in government in Spain since 1936.
1996 March: Election victory of conservative Partido Popular.
2001 11 March: Beatification of 233 priests and religious killed
during the civil war.
2002 November: Under pressure from protest groups, Spanish
Congress approves a motion condemning the coup d’e´tat of
July 1

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