Clemency was not a word that Captain Manuel Díaz Criado understood. During his four months in charge of security in the Andalusian capital of Seville following the capture of the city in July 1936 by the forces of General Francisco Franco, he launched a reign of terror, rounding up anybody suspected
An introduction to the crimes of Franco by Paul Preston: Harrowing at times.
The remains of General Franco lie in the gigantic mausoleum of the Valle de los Caídos (Valley of the Fallen), built with the sweat and blood of twenty thousand slave labourers.
Occupied Catalonia experienced an all-pervading terror in a period when merely to stay alive was a major achievement for many. Research into daily life for the defeated in rural Catalonia in the 1940s is deeply shocking, revealing an appalling catalogue of hunger and illness, arbitrary repression and fear – fear of arrest, fear of denunciation by a neighbour or by a priest. The entire process was underpinned by the complicity of thousands of people who for many reasons – fear, politics, greed, jealousy – became informers and denounced their neighbours. The sheer misery of life for the defeated in Franco’s Spain accounts for the notable rise in the suicide rate, which was often the consequence of economic and sexual extortion by the powerful. Considerable cruelty was visited upon women under the rhetorical Francoist umbrella of ‘redemption’ – rape, imprisonment as retribution for the behaviour of a son or husband and confiscation of goods. Soldiers billeted on poor families often took advantage of the unprotected women of the household. There was no shortage of priests ready to defend the honour of male parishioners and to denounce their female victims as ‘reds’.
The Splintering of Spain Chris Ealham, Michael Richards
In 1940, the dictator established by decree the Causa General, which is in effect an archive containing evidence for a prosecution of the Second Republic for crimes against Spain.28 Public prosecutors were sent into all the provinces that had formed part of the republican zone, with authority to collect documents, conduct inter-views and compile witness statements. Over 1,500 files were compiled to complement the military and political repression carried out in Spain before 1943–5. The archive was ostensibly to have a purely informative or exemplary character, part of Franco’s vainglorious ambition to be answerable only ‘before God and history’. Legal standards of proof were not observed and the quality of the information varies considerably from province to province.
70 years after the civil war, people are still missing in mass graves. Now the third generation descendants of those who want to know where are their relatives. A story about the importance of knowing the memory of family on the facts of the war
into Madrid on white horse. Victory parade in Madrid
follows, replicating the ritual of Alfonso VI’s entry into
27 May: Measures introduced against the use of Catalan
July and August: Orders for ‘purging’ of teaching profession.
8 August: Franco’s complete power is legislated in law of
23 September: Law of Widow and Orphans’ pensions for
families of men on the nationalist side only.
1940 1 March: Law ‘Against Freemasonry and Communism’.
18 March: Decree making 1 April (anniversary of the victory)
a national holiday.
1 April: Beginning of work on monumental pantheon of the
‘crusade’, the Valley of the Fallen.
12 July: Reestablishment of the Military Code of Justice for
crimes ‘derived from the Movimiento Nacional’ (civil war).
1953 26 September: Accord between US and Spanish governments
on technical and economic assistance.
1959 1 April: Inauguration by Franco of monumental tomb at the
Valley of the Fallen.
21 July: ‘Stabilisation Plan’ announced as a ‘Decree Law’
aimed at liberalising economy.
1964 Resolutions of Second Vatican Council.
1969 1 April: Thirty years after Franco’s victory, final ‘prescription’
of punishments for all ‘criminal acts’ before April 1939
1975 20 November: Death of General Franco. Juan Carlos is
1977 October: Political amnesty decreed by parliament.
1982 October: Electoral victory of PSOE, first socialist involvement
in government in Spain since 1936.
1996 March: Election victory of conservative Partido Popular.
2001 11 March: Beatification of 233 priests and religious killed
during the civil war.
2002 November: Under pressure from protest groups, Spanish
Congress approves a motion condemning the coup d’e´tat of
- alcázar and El Alcázar
- Contra Franco vivíamos mejor
- Death penalty in Spain
- Execution of Salvador Puig Antich
- Franquismo sociológico – Neo-Francoism
- Moorish guard
- NO-DO – Spanish newsreels
- Operation Ogre – the assassination of Carrero Blanco
- Una, Grande y Libre – Francoist slogan
- Quotes by Franco